A prospective study of patients with large congenital melanocytic nevi and the risk of melanoma.

Large congenital melanocytic nevus (LCMN) is considered a risk factor for melanoma, although the magnitude of this risk is controversial.

To evaluate the risk of melanoma development in patients with LCMN seen at a dermatology referral center in Brazil during a twelve-year period. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published similar studies on large congenital melanocytic nevus in South America.

Our prospective cohort included only patients with congenital nevi ≥20cm. The cumulative risk of developing melanoma and the standardized morbidity ratio were calculated for patients followed up prospectively for at least 1 month.

Sixty-three patients were enrolled in this study. One patient who developed melanoma prior to enrollment was excluded, and five were eliminated because of insufficient follow-up time. Mean follow-up for the remaining 57 patients was 5.5 years (median 5.2 years). Median age of entry into the study was 2.6 years. Most patients (75.4%) underwent only clinical observation. Melanomas occurred in 2 (3.5%) patients. Five-year cumulative risk for melanoma was 4.8% (95% CI: 1.9-11.5%). Standardized morbidity ratio was 1584 (95% CI: 266-5232, p<0.001).

The small sample size reduces the accuracy of risk estimates.

This study analyzed prospectively for the first time data from South America demonstrating that patients with LCMN have a higher risk of developing melanoma than the general population (p<0.001).

Anais brasileiros de dermatologia. 0000 Jan [Epub]

Ana Carolina Leite Viana, Eugênio Marcos Andrade Goulart, Bernardo Gontijo, Flávia Vasques Bittencourt

Dermatology Unity - Hospital das Clinicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil., Department of Pediatrics - School of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.