Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men and current treatment of advanced prostate cancer is ineffective. Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment option for metastatic prostate cancer but its clinical application is still in the early stages of development. In order to treat metastatic prostate tumors, new directions must be taken to improve current immunotherapeutic strategies. These include the identification of effective tumor antigens (Ags), the induction of the HLA class II pathway for Ag processing and CD4(+) T cell activation, and the ability of tumor cells to act like Ag presenting cells. In this review, we suggest a model for tumor Ag selection, epitope modification and self-processing for presentation by class II proteins as a means of restoring immune activation and tumor clearance. We also outline the importance of a Gamma-IFN-inducible Lysosomal Thiol reductase (GILT) in Ag and modified peptide processing by tumor cells, generation of functional epitopes for T cell recognition, and inclusion of immune checkpoint blockers in cancer immunotherapy. Taken together, this review provides a framework for the future development of novel cancer vaccines and the improvement of existing immunotherapeutics in prostate cancer.
Journal of clinical & cellular immunology. 2015 Aug 26 [Epub]
Bently P Doonan, Azizul Haque
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA., Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.