The evolving role of immunotherapy in prostate cancer.

In recent clinical trials, immunotherapeutic agents have demonstrated promising results for the treatment of prostate cancer. This review discusses emerging immunotherapies for prostate cancer and their evolving role in sequencing and combination therapy.

Therapeutic vaccines including PROSTVAC and DCVAC/PCa have completed promising phase 2 trials for the treatment of prostate cancer and phase 3 trials are underway. Recent evidence supports a synergistic relationship between immunotherapy agents themselves, antiandrogens and with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Prostate cancer patients with good prognostic factors, such as minimal disease burden, appear to achieve the optimal benefit from immunotherapy.

Therapeutic cancer vaccines and immunomodulating agents have demonstrated activity in the treatment of prostate cancer. Immunotherapies may alter the prostate tumor microenvironment and ongoing studies aim to provide guidance on effective sequencing and combination strategies.

Current opinion in oncology. 2016 May [Epub]

Lisa M Cordes, James L Gulley, Ravi A Madan

aClinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda bGenitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.